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Panna National Park Mammals



INTRODUCTION

Panna National Park Panna National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. Their boundaries are well marked and circumscribed.

Panna National Park is located in the Panna and Chatarpur District of Madhya Pradesh in Central India. It is a naturally beautiful place. It was declared a National park in the year of 1981. Total area of the park is about 542.67 Km2. Panna National park was declared as 22nd Tiger Reserve of India and the 5th in Madhya Pradesh in the year of 1994. Panna National park was given the Award of Excellence in 2007 as the best maintained national park of India by the Ministry of Tourism of India.

The region, famous for its diamond industry, is also home to some of the best wildlife species in India and is one of the most famous Tiger Reserves in the country. Panna is naturally beautiful so it is a perfect destination for Panna wildlife photography. Panna safari is must to take a glimpse of wild cat. Panna is easily accessible from Khajuraho and Satna than sure it is not a question how to reach Panna. Panna is also rich in his wildlife. Among the animals found here are the tiger, leopard, chital, chinkara, nilgai, sambhar and sloth bear. It is also home to more than 200 species of birds. A ride through the National Park is a unique experience. It was in the year 2008 that the real story starts when the reserve area of Panna lost all its tigers to poaching leaving only 2-4 tigers left. Gradually, it caused the loss of the morale of the staff of Panna jungle authority and so in the following year, i.e. in 2009 Mr. R. Shreenivasa Murthy, IFS as field director of Panna Tiger Reserve initiated the task of reintroducing tigers into the park. In collaboration with WWF and PATA, Murthy introduced two tigers to Panna, one from Bandhavgarh and the other from Panna Tiger Reserve with intricate scientific inputs. This experiment was successful and now lead to growth in total tiger population. Here we have introduced Panna mammals checklist and also described short valuable information about them to enhance our understanding.

PANNA NATIONAL PARK MAMMALS CHECKLIST

In given below table, we have tried to put all major mammals in Panna tiger reserve. Given mammals checklist will help us to develop understanding about Panna wildlife.

MAMMALS INFORMATION

Based on above specified checklist table, please study about some of the prominently seen Panna national park mammals. Here we have tried to share their characteristic features to enhance our knowledge.
Tiger :The largest of all the Asian big cats, tigers rely primarily on sight and sound rather than smell. They typically hunt alone and stalk prey. A tiger can consume up to 88 pounds of meat at one time. On average, tigers give birth to two or three cubs every two years. If all the cubs in one litter die, a second litter may be produced within five months.
Jungle Cat : This cat, contrary to its name, is found in a variety of habitats but typically is not a frequenter of “jungles”. Like the African wildcats and domestic cats, the Jungle Cat has been mummified and placed in tombs in Ancient Egypt.
Leopard : The Loepard is one of the five big cat in genus of Panthera. Compared to other members of Felidae, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large skull. It is similar in appearance to the Jaguar, but has a smaller, lighter physique. Its fur is marked with roessest imilar to those of the jaguar, but the leopard's rosettes are smaller and more densely packed, and do not usually have central spots as the jaguar's do.
Hyena : Though many people compare hyenas to dogs, they are actually much more like cats. In fact, they are members of the suborder Feliformia, which is a classification for cat-like carnivores, according to (ITIS). There are four species in the hyena family, and they vary in size.
Wild Dog (Dhole) : This mid-sized individual differs from its domestic dog and wolf cousins in a number of notable ways: it is physically more powerful than the dog and its social structure differs dramatically from that of the lone wolf. Dholes are present in almost all the national parks of Central India but their population is continuously decreasing and special conservation efforts are required. Their unity is their power due to which tiger also avoids them.
Wolf: It is subspecies of grey wolf and it ranges from Israel to the Indian Sub continent. It is intermediate in size between the Tibbatian and Arabian wolf. Two closely related haplotypes within this subspecies have been found basal to all other extant Canis lupus haplotypes apart from the older-lineage Himalayan wolf, and have been proposed as a separate species.
Sloth Bear: The sloth bear evolved from ancestral brown bears during the Pleistocene and shares features found in insect -eating mammals through convergent evolution. The population isolated in Sri Lanka is considered a subspecies. Compared to brown and black bears, sloth bears have lankier builds, long, shaggy coats that form a mane around the face, long, sickle-shaped claws, and a specially adapted lower lip and palate used for sucking insects.
Sambar : Sambar deer stands to a height of 135 -150 cm at the shoulder and can weigh up to 300 kg. Males have antlers measuring up to 1m. Its coat is dark brown in colour. It is characterized with large muzzle and broad ears. It has tick fur and orange spots on its body. Males are larger than the females. Its tail is 22- 35 cm long. Males have thick mane of hairs around the neck. It is mainly find in Central India. Its sighting is easy in Central India national parks and counted among favorite prey of Tigers. In compare to Spotted Deer, hunting down of Sambar is more convenient for Tigers. It has been adjudged as little bit careless or in other words it guide says that he underestimates the swiftness of Tigers due to which he often fall prey of Tigers.
Spotted Deer : Spotted deer or Chital are seen everywhere on the campus along with bonnet monkeys. They also move in groups of 10-20, but the male dominance is less except in the mating season. The last wildlife census put their number around 250 in the campus. They give birth to one or two fawns, once or twice a year. Unlike blackbuck, spotted deer are an introduced species to this area. Spotted deer can survive in thickly forested areas as well as scrub jungles.
Nilgai : Nilgai is a powerful creature (Antelope) which can be seen in many parts of India. Its massive structure and long neck often make it easy to distinguish it from other mammals. Its male member is called "Blue Bull". This species is in the spotlight time to time. Female Nilgai color gray, beige or brown while the males are a bluish color. A splotch of white on the throat of the male versus the female would not mark it on. Apart from India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are also host this species. According to a census in 2001 in India host more than 10 million of Nilgai.
Chinkara : Chinkara is widely distributed in India. It is mostly found in Rajasthan, north western and central parts of India. Its total height is 65 cm and weigh around 23 kg. Males have short horns. In compare to male member, female horns soft or missing and size of female is also lesser than male member. Its summer coat is warm biscuit or reddish in colour, with smooth glossy fur. In winter the white belly or throat fur is in greater contrast. The sides of the face have dark chestnut stripes from the corner of the eye to the muzzle bordered by the white stripes. It's tail is covered with a dorsal crest of black hairs. It is the smallest antelope found in Asia.
Chousingha : The short, coarse coat is yellow-brown to dark reddish-brown in colour, with the undersides and inside surfaces of the legs being whitish. The nose is generally darker, as is an indistinct stripe which runs down the front of each leg. The legs are slender, and the rump is higher than the rest of the body. The smooth, conical horns, found only in the male of this species, are nearly straight and point upwards. The main pair, found just in front of the ears grows 5-12 cm / 2-4.8 inches long. Usually there is a second, shorter pair of horns on the foremost part of the forehead, reaching a length of only 2-4 cm / 0.8-1.6 inches. These secondary horns may fall off in older animals, or may merely be represented by nodules of black, hairless skin.
Porcupine : The Indian crested porcupine is a large rodent, weighing 11-18 kg. Their body (from the nose to the base of the tail) measures in between 70-90 cm, with the tail adding an additional 8-10 cm. The lifespan of wild Indian crested porcupines is unknown, but the oldest known captive individual was a female that lived to be 27.1 years old.
Indian Fox : Indian Fox can be seen in Panna national park. Their sighting is mainly possible in evening safaris as they are nocturnal animal. Their size is small in compare to Jackal with elongated muzzle. They have pointed ears with bushy tail with prominent black tip. Back side of ear is dark brown with black margin. Their body weight ranges from 2.3kg to 4.2kg. Their main diet is crabs, termites, rodents, reptiles, insects, small birds, fruits etc.
Jackal : Its scientific name is Canis aureus. Indian Jackal is the subspecies of Golden Jackal found in South Asian countries. Its fur is a mixture of black and white hairs with buff on the shoulders, ears and legs. Its belly, chest and sodes of legs are creamy white in color. Length of adult Indian Jackal os approx. 100cm and their body weight ranges from 8 to 11kg. In night hours, we can easily find them to Panna national park adjoining villages, passing roads etc. They are primarily scavenger. They also consume rodents, reptiles, insects, fruits etc.
Wild Boar : Their scientific name is Sus scrofa. They are also called Wild Swine. They are typically social animals and often found in herds. Their breeding period in most of the areas are from November to January. Their gestation period varies according to age of mother. It ranges from 115 days to 140 days. Litter size depends upon the physical fitness of mother. It ranges from 4 to 12 at a time. Wild Boars are Omnivores so according to situation, they have their meal. They can ear leaves, bards, twigs, shoots, earthworms, insects, fish, rodents, roots etc.


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