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Khajuraho Tourism

Architecture



INTRODUCTION

Khajuraho Temples Architecture Khajuraho is popular for its temples. These group of temples are popular for their sculpture work and architecture. The temples of Khajuraho are located in the Bundelkhand region of the Madhya Pradesh state in Central India. Tourists from all over the world visits Khajuraho to witness these temples architecture and sculpture work. They are the perfect example of creativity, imagination and realization of those imaginations. They are an important and unique group of architectural gems dedicated to the major gods of Shiva and Vishnu and a variety of other Hindu gods. Yet it has perhaps been the series of erotic carvings on the temples that has attracted the greatest interest from the outside traveler. Perhaps because of their location—some distance from the major Indian political and population centers-they were spared destruction from various invaders and also, one might add, more recently, from the thundering hordes of tourists as well. The Chandela dynasty was ruled the area. The Khajuraho group of monuments was built during the rule of Rajput Chandela dynasty. The building activity started almost immediately after the rise of their power, throughout their kingdom to be later known as Bundelkhand. The temples are in a small town also known as Khajuraho, with a population of about 20,000 people. The name Khajuraho, or Kharjuravāhaka, is derived from ancient Language Sanskrit.

TEMPLES ARCHITECTURE

Let us check about Khajuraho temples architecture details. Theses temples are belong to Indo Aryan Style and built in North Indian Nagara Style. The all temples are constructed between 950 -1050 A.D. It was considered as the golden period of Chandela Dynasty when they ruled over Central India region with complete independence and influence. Originally these are 85 in numbers but only 22 still exist. These temples were neglected for a long time. The temples belong to Shaivaism And Vishnuism sect of Hindus and Jainism and Tantraism.

Khajuraho temples are like almost all Hindu temple designs; follow a grid geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. This design plan has three important components – Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, and rainbow). Each supports the other. The square is divided into perfect 64 sub-squares called padas. Most Khajuraho temples deploy the 8x8 (64) padas grid Manduka Vastupurushamandala, with pitha mandala the square grid incorporated in the design of the spires. The primary deity or lingas are located in the grid's Brahma padas or in the Garbha Griha. Khajuraho temples use the 8x8 (64) Vastupurusamandala Manduka grid layout plan (left) found in almost all the Hindu Temples. Above the temple's brahma padas is a Sikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the Garbh Griha, typically in a circles and turning-squares concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.

The architecture is symbolic and shows the central Hindu beliefs through its form, structure and arrangement of its parts. The mandapas as well as the arts are arranged in the Khajuraho temples in symmetric repeating patterns, even though each image or sculpture is distinctive in its own way. The relative placement of the images is not random but together they express ideas, just like connected words form sentences and paragraphs to compose ideas. This fractal pattern that is common in Hindu temples. Various statues and panels have inscriptions. All the temples of Khajuraho is east facing except one and the devotee's entrance is from East side. This is often surrounded by smaller, subsidiary towers (urushringa) and intermediate towers; these naturally draw the eye up to the highest point, like a series of hills leading to a distant peak. Setting the temple on a raised base (adhisthana) also shifts the eye upward, and promotes this vertical quality. The temples used to be built in the panchayatana style which consisted of one central temple with four subshrines at four corners. The Lakshaman temple at Khajuraho is an example. The temples have been made of granite or sandstone especially upon raised platforms. The platforms stand on solid rock masses. Spires were constructed by placing solid blocks of stone upon four pillars and then adding blocks of stone. Various spires are out of alignment. The erotic sculptures are located on the outer wall of the antaraal in the recess that is formed by the two cross arms. The temples are grouped into three divisions: southeastern group of Jain temples, the western group of Brahmanical temples to Lord Shiva and Vishnu and the northern group of Vaishnava temples. Columns and architraves were built with megaliths. The arches in are made by a technique known as corbelling.

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

Amalaka is a stone disk with ridges on the rim that is on top of the temple's main tower. It is crowned with a kalasha from which a temple banner is hung. Ardhamandapa is the entrance porch that forms a transitional area between the Mandapa and outside world. Mandapa is a hall in the temple, forming a transitional space between the Mahamandapa and Ardhamandapa. Mahamandapa is the temple's main entrance-hall, separated from the garbhagriha by an antarala. At Khajuraho, a mahamandapa is indiacted by the bumped-out portions which are perpendicular to the temple's main axis. Antarala is a transitional space between a temple's main hall and the inner sanctum. The exterior panels on these elements are the primary sites for large panels with erotic sculptures. Garbagirha is the temple's inner sanctum that contains the image of the temple's primary deity. It is found in almost all large Hindu temples, in the world. Urushringa are the smaller towers on the temple's exterior that would lead the eye up to the highest point. Adhishsthana is the raised base on which a temple was built. These are high especially in the temples at Khajuraho.

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